Harvested off the pristine West-Coast of SA
A fish-eye-view of a kelp forest

Chlorine 0.1 - 1% Iodine 300 - 700 ppm (winter - summer)
Sodium 1 - 3% Copper 8 - 16 ppm
Potassium 3 - 7% Zinc 7 - 60 ppm
Sulfur 3 - 4% Manganese 3 - 50 ppm
Calcium 1 - 6% Selenium 0.5 - 3 ppm
Protein 9 - 11%, Main amino-acid, Tyrosine 8.5g/kg (8,500ppm)

  %   %
Silver .000004 Nitrogen .062400
Aluminium .019300 Sodium 4.180000
Gold .000006 Nickel .003500
Boron .019400 Oxygen Undeclared
Barium .001276 Osmium Trace
Carbon Undeclared Phosphorus .211000
Calcium 1.904000 Lead .000014
Chlorine 3.680000 Rubidium .000005
Cobalt .001227 Sulphur 1.564200
Copper .000635 Antimony .000142
Fluorine .032650 Silicon .164200
Iron .089560 Tin .000006
Germanium .000005 Strontium .074876
Hydrogen Undeclared Tellurium Trace
Mercury .000190 Titanium .000012
Iodine .062400 Thallium .000293
Potassium 1.280000 Vanadium .000531
Lanthanum .000019 Tungsten .000033
Lithium .000007 Zinc .003516
Magnesium .213000 Zirconium .000001
Manganese .123500 Selenium .000043
Molybdenum <.001592 Uranium .000004

Bismuth Gallium Thorium
Beryllium Indium Radium
Niobium Iridium Bromine
Cadmium Palladium Cerium
Chromium Platinum Rhodium


Kelp / Seaweed

Contains chlorophyll.
Contains naturally chelated minerals.
Contains the only rich natural source of vegetable Vitamin D.
Contains 25 vitamins including Folic Acid, Vitamins A, B12 and D, often lacking in vegetarian diets.
Contains sodium alginate, which actively helps remove radioactive elements and heavy metals from the body.
Contains sterols, which are reported to exhibit anti-hypercholesterolemic activity, as has B-Sitosterol in humans.

Kelp uniquely tops the list for the following nutrients: calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, iodine, and is also very high in sulfur. (Heritage F, Composition and Facts About Food, Health Research, 1971)

Seawater and human blood are almost identical in chemical constituency. No fewer than 92 different mineral elements have been found in seaweeds, including some elements which we require only in trace amounts, but whose presence is nonetheless vital to our complete well-being. Seaweeds contain many times more minerals than land grown plants, as much as 50 times more according to Dr W Black. (Black W, Proc Nutr Soc (Eng), 32, 1953) Since that was more than half a century ago, it is to expected that a land-grown plants are even less nutritious now.

Gaia Research takes the informed position that in general, most natural foods still synthesise all the essential nutrients, albeit less efficiently….other than the mineral micro-nutrients (and to a degree, the essential fatty acids) and that only kelp, which contains perfectly chelated minerals, can effectively supplement these….provided it is “micronised kelp” (reduced to the smallest physical size possible, ie ideally to mere dust), since kelp is otherwise undigestable and incapable of breakdown sufficiently to release all of its rich nutrient treasures.

Kelp is a food adjunct, which improves intestinal flora, as a result of which an increase occurs in the assimilation of other foodstuffs in the consumer. The organic iodine acts as a thyroxin precursor and regulates the metabolism. Kelp can supply daily requirements of carotenoids, vitamins A, B1, 2, 6 & 12 and D and pantothenic acid. Kelp has properties that expel intestinal worms, making it useful for both animals and humans. (SA Digest, August 26, 1983)

Kelp is highly nutritious since it has at its disposal all the nutrients which run-off from the land, but little competition to assimilate these. It preferentially bio-accumulates all the essential plant-nutrients, rejecting the contaminants, unless the latter totally predominate, as in the highly developed and populated areas of the world. Possibly the last pure kelp-beds in the world, South African West coast kelp, Ecklonia, is fed by the clean Benguela cold water currents, which flow northwards up the West coast of southern Africa from the pristine ice continent of Antartica.




Seaweed is a popular dietary component in Japan and a rich source of both of these essential elements. We hypothesize that this dietary preference may be associated with the low incidence of benign and malignant breast disease in Japanese women. In animal and human studies, iodine administration has been shown to cause regression of both iodine-deficient goiter and benign pathological breast tissue. Iodine, in addition to its incorporation into thyroid hormones, is organified into anti-proliferative iodolipids in the thyroid; such compounds may also play a role in the proliferative control of extrathyroidal tissues. Selenium acts synergistically with iodine. All three mono-deiodinase enzymes are selenium-dependent and are involved in thyroid hormone regulation. In this way selenium status may affect both thyroid hormone homeostasis and iodine availability. Although there is suggestive evidence for a preventive role for iodine and selenium in breast cancer, rigorous prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. (Cann S, et al, Cancer Causes Control, 11(2): 121, 2000)

As it is impossible to use medicines for prevention of human breast cancer, in Japan, a lot of investigations using natural foods like as green tea, seaweed etc has been done. Seaweed was effective on breast cancer proliferation in rats. (Funahashi H, Nippon Rinsho, 58(6): 1267, 2000) (See green tea research for evidence for efficacy thereof)

From a nutritional point of view, edible seaweeds are low-calorie foods, with a high concentration of minerals, vitamins and proteins, and a low content in lipids. Quality of protein and lipid in seaweeds is acceptable comparing with other diet vegetables mainly due to their high content in essential amino acids and their relative high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fiber content range from 33% to 75% of dry weight, and mainly consist of soluble polysaccharides (range from 17% to 59%), which fiber differs chemically and physicochemically from those of land plants and thus may induce different physiological effects. Referenced data indicate that marine algal dietary fiber may show important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, kelp/seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population. (Jimenez-Escrig A & Goni Cambrodon I, Arch Latinoam Nutr, 49(2): 114, 1999)

Dietary antioxidants from plants are believed to help prevent aging and other diseases through radical scavenging activity. Almost all the seaweed species had good ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. (Yan X, et al, Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 52(3): 253, 1998)

The activity of seaweed extracts on murine and human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. The extracts of some kinds of seaweed stimulated normal spleen B cells to proliferate. Seaweed extracts also enhanced Ig production by B cells and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by macrophages. Furthermore, seaweed extracts stimulated human lymphocytes to proliferate. All these B cell stimulating activities of seaweed extracts were associated with glycoproteins. Research results suggest that seaweed extracts have stimulating activity on B cells and macrophages and this ability could be clinically beneficial for the modulation of immune responses. (Liu J, et al, Int J Immunopharmacol, 19(3): 135, 1997)

Kelp / seaweed are potentially adequate sources of vitamin B-12 for vegans. (Dagnelie P, J Nutr. 127(2): 379, 1997) The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." Vegans consuming seaweeds had serum vitamin B-12 concentrations twice as high as

those not using seaweeds. On the basis of the results we conclude that some seaweeds consumed in large amounts can supply adequate amounts of bioavailable vitamin B-12. (Rauma A, J Nutr, 125(10): 2511, 1995)

Edible brown seaweeds have antitumor activity and were effective from 70-84% in inhibiting colon cancer in rats, by boosting the animal’s immune systems, enabling it to better fight off the cancers. (Yanamoto I, Hydrobiologica, 116/117: 145, 1984)

Research on the properties and / or anticarcinogenic role of various types of seaweed, has led to the proposal that the mechanisms of seaweed's breast cancer preventing action were reduction of plasma cholesterol, binding of biliary steroids, the antioxygenic activity of the phospholipids, inhibition of carcinogenic fecal flora, binding of pollutants and the addition of important trace minerals to the diet. It is suggested that by eating seaweed, breast cancer may be prevented and that this dietary habit among the Japanese is an important factor in understanding their lower breast cancer rates. (Teas J, Med Hypotheses, 7(5): 601, 1981; Teas J, Nutrition Cancer 4(3): 217, 1983; Teas J, et al, Cancer Res 44(7): 2758, 1984)

The alginates found in kelp/seaweeds have a soothing and cleansing effect on the digestive tract and are known to help prevent the absorption of toxic metals like mercury, cadmium, plutonium and cesium. (Tanaka Y, et al, Application of algal polysaccharides as in vivo binders of metal pollutant. Proc Seventh Int Seaweed Symp, 602-607, Wiley & Sons, 1972) Kelp is also therapeutic for heart disease, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. (Kameda J, I Fukushima Igaku Zasshi, 11, 289,1961; Funayama S, et al, Planta Medica, 41, 29, 1981; Kosuge T, et al, Yakugaku Zasshi, 103(6), 683,1983)

Kelp is now best recognised for its ability to protect the body against radiation. The sodium alginate in kelp helps prevent the absorption of Strontium-90, a by-product of nuclear power and weapons facilities. Studies have shown that alginate supplements can reduce Strontium-90 absorption by as much as 83 %. (Carr T, et al, Int J Radiat Biol. 14(3), 225,1969.) The US Atomic Energy Commission guidelines advocate 2 tablespoons of an alginate supplement per day to prevent Strontium-90 absorption and the troubles that go with it, such as leukemia, bone cancer and Hodgkin's disease. (Yamamoto I, et al, Japan J Exp Med, 44(6), 543,1974; Suzuki Y, Chemotherapy (Tokyo), 28(2), 165, 1980; US Dept Health & Human Services, Dietary Aspects of Carcinogenesis, Nov 1981; Yamamoto I, et. Al, Japan J Exp Med, 51(3), 187,1981)

Seawater itself has antibiotic and healing properties. Algae in the sea have properties related to the seawater’s medicinal powers, which may explain why marine products have fungicidal, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-biotic, hemolytic, analgesic, cardio-inhibitory and other properties. It is also interesting to note that seawater contains dissolved bromine, a compound used in many sedatives. (Riekert H, Drugs from the Sea, Govt Printer, RSA, 1972)

Seaweed contains antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, anthelmintic and antineoplastic elements and properties. The halogens, iodine and bromine in particular are effective antiseptics and disinfectants and the tannin polyphenols have antibacterial actions. The polysaccharides present have antitumor and blood anticoagulant actions similar to heparin. (Tressler D, Marine Products in Commerce, Reinhold, 1954; Chapman V, Seaweeds and Their Uses, Methuen, 1970; Arasaki S & T, Vegetables From the Sea, Japan Publications, 1983)

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