This document has been extracted by the author from the Gaia Organics catalogue. It represents what is probably the most accurate synoptic review available of scientific research into the "Kombucha" phenomenon. The Gaia Research Institute and its associated funding pedigreed Kombucha cultures are purist in that they are personally laboratory raised exclusively on high quality imported peasant grown Chinese green tea and fueled with natural brown sugar, as per its two millennium evolutionary milieu, empowering you to access high integrity pedigreed cultures and perpetuate a centuries old tradition of producing your household's own "Divine Che", "Mo Gu", "Cajnii grib", "Hongo", "Manchurian Tea" or "Kargasok Tea", which are just some of 100-odd names by which the slightly sweet/tart beverage produced is known and which every fortnight doubles its production capacity, which is why it is often given away as a gift and has been called "Le champignon de la charité", the "fungus of charity". Consumption of Kombucha was first recorded in 220 BC in Manchuria, from whence it spread throughout the Far East, Pacific, India, Russia, Germany, eventually to the rest of Europe, to Africa and more recently across the entire globe.

Kombucha is not simply a fungus but a jellyfish-like zoogleal mat, a near-lichen, a symbiosis of beneficent non-toxic yeasts and bacterium which for two milennia has enjoyed great popularity in the far East and for a century in Eastern Europe for its tasty and refreshing tonic beverage which fell into relative oblivion due to economic circumstances during World War II, prior to which many households sustained a culture which they were forced to let die out as the tea and sugar which were so essential to its preservation became unavailable. Kombucha however is experiencing a phenomenal resurgence of popularity internationally as a healthful tonic beverage. Kombucha comprises of split or fission yeasts and hence does not usually contain the yeast spores from which so many suffer. Due to improved colon ecology, it actually helps rather than aggravates the battle against candidiasis. It has been widely reported that especially with elderly people, Kombucha beverage has rejuvenating effects, causing hair to colour again, as well as having the effect of tightening the skin and enhancing the overall feeling of health and vitality.

The widespread use of the Kombucha beverage has been well documented throughout this past century. Kombucha's liquid medium (tea kvass) and mass (zoogloea) (Medusomyces gisevii Lindau -botanical name) have also been intensively investigated to as a result of numerous early observations that this medium showed distinct antibiotic (bactericidal and bacteriostatic) effects against a number of disease organisms and was used for several therapeutic purposes in veterinary and human medicine. Contrary to public health and medical ignorance or propaganda, the beneficial properties of Kombucha have been rather well documented for a full scientific century and is still contemporarily so for such a relatively obscure natural food product. Early to mid 20th century, mainly German medical research, documented Kombucha primarily as an intestinal regulator and as having excellent effects on general body functions, but also progressively established specific efficacy in cases of digestive disturbances, constipation, haemorrhoids, kidney stones, gall bladder problems, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cholesterol, high blood pressure, angina, gout, gouty eczema, arthritis, rheumatism, atherosclerosis, irritability, anxiety, headaches, dizziness, fatigue, tiredness. (The specific early references for these are available on request)

Approaching mid century, Kombucha was established in official pharmacopoeia, with eg the Director of the "Academy of Chemists" at Braunschweig recording that it invigorates the entire glandular system, is highly recommended for gout, rheumatism, furunculosis, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and aging problems; that by harmonizing and balancing metabolism, unwanted fat deposits removed or prevented; and that damaging deposits of uric acid and cholesterol are converted into more soluble forms, more easily excreted via the kidneys and intestines. (Irion H, Lehrgang fur Drogistenfachschule, Rudolf Muller Publ., Vol 2, 1944) As German medical researchers turned increasingly to synthetic pharmaceuticals, Soviet researchers discovered that Kombucha produces Vitamin C, besides many other valuable health substances (References are in Russian and being meaningless to most readers, are provided in abbreviated form) (Kasevnik L, Bjull Exp Biol i Med, 3(1), 1937); (Berezova M, Gigiena I Sanitaria (7), 1943) Russian scientists demonstrated a distinct antibiotic effect aside from that of the acids (Sakarjan G, Trudy Erevanskogo Zooveterinarnogo Instituta, [hereafter TEZI] 10, 1949), bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal efficacy against pneumococcae, conjunctivitis and xerophtalmia (Naumova E, Konferencija: Kazan'sches Staatliches Medizinisches Institut, 1949), against tonsillitis and enterocolitis (Sakaran G, TEZI, 11, 1949), and against anaerobic dysentery and colibacillosis (Tinditnik V, Terapeveticeskii Arhiv 23(1), 1950).

Russian research continued to establish efficacy in wound healing (Markarjan G, Dissertation) TEZI, 1953) and infectious wounds (Matinjan A, TEZI, 16, 1953) and various intestinal diseases (Nurazjan A, Diss, TEZI, 1954) intestinal typhus (Porickij E, Trudy XI Nausn Konf Slusat, Voenno Morskoi Med Akad, 1954), infantile stomatitis (Rusina N, Studenskaja Naucnaja Konferencija, Posvjascennaja, Jubileju Instituta Har'kovsij, 1955), toxic dyspepsia (Adzjan T, Tezisy Dokladov na P-oj Respublicanskoj Konferencii Detskih Vracej Armenii Min Zdrav Arm, 1957), pediatric dysentery (Mihajlova A, Iz detskoj kliniceskoj boltnicy No l, Omska, 1957), paratyphus and brucellosis (Sakaran G, Trudy Erevanskogo Zooveterinarnogo Instituta 21, 1957), high cholesterol and blood pressure (Joirisi N, Saxelmcip'o Gamoc'emloba, Staatsverlag, Georgien, 1957), and infantile toxic dysentery and healing of infected wounds (Danielova L, Gitoutyan Glaxavor Varcoutyan Hratarakcoutyon, 1959). As a feed additive for chickens, it increased growth by 15%. (Sakaran G, Investija Akad Nauk Armjanskoi SSSR, 12(15), 1959)

By the 1960's Kombucha research fell victim to the cold war, with the Russians withholding details of their research, with many known documents still remaining classified and the only available literature thereafter being mainly German, but not before professor Barbancik published the first book fully devoted to the subject, translated as "The Tea Mushroom and Its Therapeutic Properties". After covering earlier data from Russian hospital settings, in particular efficacy in tonsillitis, enterocolitis, inflammatory internal diseases, stomach catarrh due to deficient acid production, intestinal inflammations, dysentery, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and sclerosis, Prof Barbancik records later observing fast healing after tonsillitis, lacunar, follicular and catarrhal angina and clearing of associated nasal and even intestinal catarrh following gargling. Barbancik mentions success in healing of sub-acidic gastritis and chronic enterocolitis and also surprisingly good results in dysentery patients. Arteriosclerosis and hypertony with sclerosis were also improved and blood cholesterol levels decreased. Prof Babancik emphasised strongly that the possibility of a cancerogenic action lacks any foundation from a scientific- medical point of view. (Barbancik G, "Cajniyi Grib I ego Lecebnye Svojstva', Omskoe Oblastnoe Kniznoe Izdatel'stvo, 1960)

A definitive Kombucha literature compilation in German followed. (Stadelman E, Zentralbl Bakteriol Parasitenkde, Infektionskrankh und Hygiene, 1 (180), 1961) More recently, Dr. R Sklenar M.D. reported therapeutic success with the tea fungus with which he successfully treated gout, rheumatic conditions, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, dysbacteria, constipation, impotence, non-specific draining, obesity, furunculosis, kidney stones, cholesterol and cancers, concluding: "An outstanding natural remedy which acts detoxifying in every regard and which dissolves microorganisms as well as cholesterol." (Sklenar R, M.D., Erfahrungssheilkunde, Zeitscrift fur die tagliche Praxis, XIII, 3, 1964) The medicinal properties and health benefits of Kombucha relatively recently again became the topic for a dissertation for a degree, (Schmidt I, "Der Teepilz-morphologische, physiologische und therapeutische Untersuchungen", Dissertation, 1979). The Germanic people especially have publicly maintained a keen health interest in Kombucha, as witnessed by the trend of just a half-decade of common references in the popular press:

Refs 1986-1989: (Fasching R, "Krebsheilen mit dem Teepilz Kombucha", Diagnosen, 8, 1986); (Korner H, "Die Heilkraft des Pilzes Kombucha", Raum & Zeit, 20, 1986); (Korner H, "Kombucha - wertwolles Geschenk der Natur", Naturheilpraxis, 39, 1986); (Carstens V, "Hilfe aus der Natur - mein Mittel gegen Krebs", Quick 43, 1987); (Funke R, "Der Teepilz Kombucha", Natur& Heilen, 64, 1987); (Koerner H, "Der Teepilz Kombucha", Der Naturatz, 108, 1987); (Fasching R, "Pilz gegen Pilz", Diagnosen, 8, 1988); (Horstkorte C, "Zaubertrank aus China-Pilz hilft auch bei Sex Problemen", Bild der frau, 2, 1988); (Kaminski A, "Aertze: Pilz heilt Frauenleiden, Bild der frau, 2, 1988); (Abele J, "Teepilz Kombucha bei Diabetes?", Ner Naturarzt, 110(12), 1988); (Brucker M, "Antwort auf Leseranfrage 'Wundermittel Kombucha'", Natur i Heilen, 65, 1988); (Frank R, "Zuckerproblem beim Kombucha-Tee", Natur & Heilen, 65, 1988); (Frank G, Heilkrafte der Natur aus einen Pilz - Der Teepilz Kombucha, Birkenfeld, 1988); (Goetz G, "Kombucha - der Wunderpilz, der Millionen Gesuntheid schenkt", Das Neue, 3(14), 1988); (Mann U, "Verbluffend - ein Pilz kuriert den Darm", Bild und Funk, 35, 1988); (Koerner H, "Kombucha - Zubereitung wurde von Sportmedizern getestet", Natura-med, 10, 1989); (Zimmermann W, "Wogegen hilft der Kombucha-Pilz?", Expertenanfrage, Fortchritte der Medizin, 107, 1989).

Initially, due to a lack of research in the English language, I assumed that Kombucha owed most of its beneficial properties to the tea with which it is brewed, since its benefits dovetail well with the outstanding properties already scientifically documented for Chinese tea. Translations of Russian and German research and chemical analysis have altered this view.

The Kombucha ferment contains various acidic metabolic by-products, including acetic, citric, malic, tartaric, succinic, pyruvic, ascorbic, butyric, *glucuronic, hyaluronic, lactic, usnic and chondroitin sulphate acids, as well as glucosamines, heparin, beta-glucans (cell-wall only), B-vitamins, including B-12, more than a dozen yeast strains and also other active antibiotic substances (Danielova L, Trudy Erevanskogo zooveterinarnogo Instituta, 17: 201­216, 1954); (Konovalov L, Semenova M, Bot. Žurnal (Moskva), 40(4), 1955); (List P, Hufschmidt W, Pharm. Zentralhalle, 98(11), 1959); (Petrovic S, Loncar E, Mikrobiologija, 33(2), 1996); (Reiss J, Dtsch. Lebensm.­Rundsch., 83: 286­290, 1987); (Hauser S, Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax, 79(9), 1990); (Mayser P, Mycoses, 38(7-8), 1995); (*Blanc P, Biotechnol Lett, 18(2), 1996); (Sreeramula G, et al, J Agric Food Chem, 48(6), 2000); (*Loncar E et al, Nahrung 44(2), 2000); (Safac S et al, Turk Electron J Biotech, Spec Issue, pp 11-17, 2002); (*Malbaša R et al, Roum Biotechnol Lett, 7(1), 2002); (*Cvetkovic D, Markov S, Acta Periodica Tech, 33: 117, 2002); (*Franco V et al, Tatlana - Intl J Pure App Analyt Chem, 68(3), 2006); (*Mrdanovic J et al, Arch Oncol, 15(3-4), 2007); (*Jayabalan R et al, Food Chem, 102(1), 2007); (*Oliveira A et al, Food Chem, 111(2), 2008); (Karyantina M, Mercuria, 12 November, 2008); (*Murugesan G et al, J Microbiol Biotechnol 19(0nline 30 Jan 09), 2009).

For elaboration on our continued listing of ‘glucuronic acid’ as a constituent of Kombucha, as cited by the asterisked references, please see our additional research abstracts page here

Acetic acid (as in the popular folk remedy - Apple Cider Vinegar) is capable of conjugation with toxins, making them more soluble for subsequent elimination from the body. (Dutton G, Glucuronidation of Drugs and Other Compounds, CRC Press, 1980) Similarly, glucuronic acid is one of the few agents that can detoxify petroleum-based products. Physiologically, in the liver, glucuronic acid binds up toxins, both environmental and metabolic via UDP-glucuronyltransferase and brings them to the excretory system, so the concentrations of glucuronic acid could explain some of the speculative curative effects attributed to kombucha. (Blanc P, "Characterisation Of The Tea Fungus Metabolites", Biotechnology Letters, 18 (3), 1995) Recent epidemiological studies promote the notion that high intake of food rich in Phytochemicals protects against degenerative diseases such as coronary heart diseases and cancer. Potential toxins in Phytochemicals are also detoxified in mammalian tissues by conjugation with glucuronic acid, yielding less active glucuronide conjugates. (Andlauer W, et al, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 24(5), 2000)

Glucuronic acid could also partly scientifically explain much of the cancer successes attributed to Kombucha against cancer. (Kohler V, "Glukuronsaure macht Kebspatiente Mut", Arzlichte Praxis, 24/33, 1981); (Kohler V & Kohler J, in Sofortheilung des Waldes, Vol. 1 (Editor, Kaegelmann), Windeke-Rosbach, 1985) Dr. R Sklenar M.D. developed a biologic cancer therapy in which Kombucha held an important place for the sanitation and balancing of the intestinal flora and achieved success with cancer in the early stages of detection. Sklenar reported that: "Kombucha effects an outstanding detoxification of the organism. Through enjoying this beverage there is, additionally, a noticeable invigoration of the entire glandular system and enhancement of the metabolism. For cancer patients, this detoxification process that is triggered by the ingestion of glucuronic acid is good news indeed, for many medical specialists feel that there is a direct link between the overall toxicity of the body and the potential for the onset of tumors and other malignant growths". (Fasching R, M.D., Krebsdiagnose aus dem Blut und die Behandlung von Krebs und Prakanzerosen mit der Kombucha und Kolipraparaten, 1983).

Mainstream cancer research is complex and expensive. A decade following Kohler's and Sklenar's, pioneering research, one Hauser, noting Sklenar's first-hand long-term clinical experience based claims for Kombucha to be a prophylactic and therapeutic agent in countless diseases such as rheumatism, intestinal disorders, aging and cancer, critiqued Dr Sklenar's use of Kombucha infusion in biological cancer therapy, claiming that based on 'case histories without solid medical data', there is 'so far no evidence' to support the claim that Kombucha offers 'effective biological treatment for cancer'. (Hauser S, Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax, 79(9), 1990) Hauser was correct, but in fairness to Sklenar, the latter was not attempting to assemble evidence of the unaffordable standard required to make Kombucha a cancer drug. Interestingly, a decade later, proprietary glucuronide analogs had been developed and Ohio State University researchers triumphantly reported that their long-term safety and chemopreventive potency had been established against mammary tumor development and growth. Specifically, tumour latency was longer, tumour incidence was decreased, and tumour multiplicity was also markedly decreased. The study concluded that glucuronide was 'clearly effective'. (Abou-Issa H, et al, Anticancer Res, 19(2A), 1999)

Another by-product of Kombucha glucuronic acid is the glucosamines. In the body, glucosamines and related chondroitin sulfate are associated with cartilage, collagen and the fluid, which lubricate the joints. These two agents have shown substantial benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (Deal C, Moskowitz R, Rheum Dis Clin North Am, 25(2), 1999); (McAlindon T, JAMA 283(11), 2000). In rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid and its two sub-components, D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, play a role in protecting articular tissues from oxidative damage. (Sato H, et al, Arthritis Rheum, 31(1), 1988) Both the size and concentration of hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid are diminished in osteoarthritis. Glucosamines increase synovial hyaluronic acid production. Hyaluronic acid functions physiologically to aid preservation of cartilage structure and prevent arthritic pain (McCarty M, et al, Med Hypotheses 54(5), 2000), with relief comparable to NSAIDs and advantage over glucocorticoids. (Hochberg M, Semin Arthritis Rheum, 30(2 Suppl 1) 2000) Hyaluronic acid enables connective tissue to bind moisture thousands of times its weight and maintains tissue structure, moisture, lubrication and flexibility and lessens free radical damage, whilst associated collagen retards and reduces wrinkles.

Butyric acid, also found in Kombucha, protects human cellular membranes and combined with glucuronic acid, strengthens the walls of the gut and so protects against parasites, including yeast infections such as candida. (Mann U, "Verbluffend - ein Pilz Kuriert den Darm", Bild und Funk, 35, 1988) The antibacterial properties are considered to be due to the presence of the usnic acid. (Steiger K & Steinegger E, "On The Tea Fungus", Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae. 32 (4), 1957); (Stadelman E, "Der Teepilz Und Seine Antibiotische Wirkung", Zentralbl Bakt Parasit Inf Hyg, 180 (5), 1961); (Hauser S, "Dr. Sklenar's Kombucha Mushroom Infusion - A Biological Cancer Therapy", Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax, 79, 1990) Unfractioned heparin, beyond its established anticoagulant activity, also exhibits a broad spectrum of immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties which specifically aids in the healing of an ulcerated mucosa. Heparin may represent a safe therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease, in particular for severe steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. (Papa A, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 14(11) 2000)

Beta glucan is only significantly available from the well-pressed or very finely shredded mass, which develops during Kombucha production. Dr Ted Johnson, PhD, Professor of Biology at St Olaf College, has suggested that since most of the beneficial compounds remain inside the cells of the mass, these could be compared to medicinal capsules waiting to be broken down in the intestines to detoxify and strengthen our bodies. (Personal communication: Dr Johnson, with Norbert Hoffmann, St Olaf College, Northfield, MN, 2 June, 1979) Beta-glucan, a cell-wall component, is a completely orally safe, potent free radical scavenger, insulin stimulator and non-specific stimulator of the human immune response, in particular macrophages, which play a pivotal role in the initiation and maintenance of the immune response. When macrophages (including phagocytes), which are the front line of defence, are activated, a myriad of immunological reactions occur against challenging stimuli such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and foreign debris, including the up-regulation of cytokines, bone marrow production, monocytes, neutrophils, natural killer cells. (Luzio N, et al, Int J Cancer, 24; 1979); (Di Renzo L, et al, Eur J Immunol, 21, 1991); (Muto S et al, J Clin Immunol, 13, 1993); (Thornton B, et al, J Immunol, 156(3), 1996); (Williams D, et al, Clin Immunother, 5(5), 1996) Beta-glucans can also have topical applications.

Gaia Research has successfully pioneered the use of Green Tea Kombucha cell-wall components in several of its leading edge Gaia Organics range of personal care products. Several progressive cosmetic houses use animal products and some have even changed over to synthetically produced materials in order to reduce or delay wrinkles, sun damage and risk of skin cancers. The Kombucha yeast cells are eukaryotes, ie of a class that includes all plants and animals, including humans. Consequently substances traditionally obtained by others from animal sources, eg hyaluronic acid, which is collected from aborted fetus, womb, umbilical cord, vitreous humour or synovial fluid of sacrificed animals, is uniquely humanely obtained by us from Kombucha without involving animals at all, as is our strict research ethic and manufacturing policy. Some 15 years after our pioneering this application, Croda, a leading industry supplier is now actually offering Kombucha extracts to “decrease glycation, increase adipocyte population, reduce skin roughness and increase skin radiance”. “We lead; others follow”.

Green tea and to a lesser extent, black tea, provides all the components and growth factors required by the Kombucha culture additional to sugar, including the important stimulant components, caffeine and theophylline, which belong to the purine groups required by the micro-organisms as a source of nitrogen for building nucleic acids, and which green tea reportedly provides more than twice that of black tea, and which phenomenon explains the 25% diminishing caffeine levels in Kombucha as fermentation proceeds, rendering it more suitable than tea in pregnancy. Green tea also contains vitamin-C, whereas black tea does not. In symbiotic exchange, Kombucha produces B-spectrum vitamins and additional vitamin-C, just a few reasons why green tea is superior to black for Kombucha production. (Such G, Prokai-Szabo E, Presentation Bulgar Biol Soc, 1961) Dr H Golz determined that the Kombucha symbiont requires the purin from the tea for its metabolism, during which uric acid, which is generally difficult to dissolve and which leads to gout, is turned into an aqueous solution, more easily discharged from the body via the bladder. (Golz H, "Kombucha Ein altes Teeheilmittel schenkt neue Gesuntheit, Ariston, Munchen, 1992)

The widespread and safe use of the Kombucha beverage has been well documented throughout this past century in other than the advocate press (Kobert R, "Der Kvass, Ein unschadliches billiges Volksgetrank". Halle a.d.S.: Tausch Grosse 2 Aufl 82 S, 1913); (Valentin H, "Wesentliche Bestandteile der Gärungsprodukte in den durch Pilztätigkeit gewonnenen Hausgetränken sowie die Verbreitung der letzteren", Apoth-Ztg, 41(91 & 92), 1930); (Hesseltine C, "A Millennium of Fungi, Food and Fermentation", Mycologia 57, 1965); (Hitokoto H, et al, "Microbial flora and organic acid contents in "Tea fungus", Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi [Proc Soc Food Hygiene] 19(3), 1978); (Anon, "Tea Fungus" in Handbook Of Indigenous Fermented Food, K Steinkraus (ed), Dekker, 1983); (Kozacki M, et al, J Food Hyg Soc Japan, 13, 1986); (Reiss J, Deuts Lebenmittel-Rundschau, 82(9), 1987); (Cook P, "Fermented Food as Biotechnological Resource", Food Res Internatl, 27(3), 1994). A spate of popular layman's books appeared around this time: (Fasching R, 1987); (Frank G, 1988); (Frank G, 1991); (Harnish G, 1991); (Tietze H, 1994); (Hobbs C, 1995); (Pascal A, 1995); (Bartholomew A & M, 1998).

As Kombucha's popularity grew in developed countries, so did anecdotal medical reports of associated adverse effects and illness, including hepatoxicity and even possibly death. (Perron A, et al, Ann Emergency Med, 26(5), 1995) Interestingly, not one of these toxic reports are linked to Kombucha made with Green Tea. All were linked to Black Tea. (Amer Assoc Poison Contr Centre Bull, Nov, 1993); (Anon, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 44(48), 1995); (Webb J, Drug Informat Perspectives, 15(2), 1995); (Monson N, Alter Compl Therap, Sept/Oct, 1995); (JAMA, 275(2), 1996); (Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology, Second Edn, 1997); (Srinivasan R, et al, J Gen Intern Med, 12(10), 1997); (Sadjadi J, JAMA, 280, 1998); (Greenwalt C, et al, J Food Prot, 63(7), 2000) Memory serves me to recall over two decades, similar episodes in South Africa, including the use of Rooibos Tea. (Tygerberg Hosp, Stellenbosch Univ)

Recall that Green Tea exhibited phenomenally potent and diverse antimicrobial properties (pp15 -17) capable of selectively maintaining Kombucha's 2000 year evolutionary microbial integrity until it produces its own arsenal, recently scientifically verified as capable of inhibiting amongst other documented pathogenic micro-organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes, and the mechanism for several being progressively active long before the acetic acid stage previously believed to exert the effect. (Sreeramulu G, et al, J Agric Food Chem, 48(6), 2000) Bearing in mind the combined antimicrobial properties of Green Tea and Kombucha, risk-benefit analysis adjudicates a positive health potential second to none.

Whilst most modern reports quite rightly advise caution in the use of black tea Kombucha, continuing research has recently confirmed that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity, enhances sleep and pain thresholds (Greenwalt C et al, J Food Prot 63(7), 2000), has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities (Sai Ram M, et al, J Ethnopharmacol, 71(1), 2000), and in rodent studies, both male and female mice which drank Kombucha, demonstrated enhanced cognition, decreased appetite and weight and all lived longer natural lives than the controls (Hartmann A, et al, Nutrition, 16(9), 2000)

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